Hallmarks of Aging, Aging, Cellular Aging, DNA aging
The Nine Hallmarks of Aging describe specific changes in our cells that are directly associated with the aging process. The Hallmarks are widely accepted in the scientific community and have been extensively studied in biomedical research over the past decade:
- Telomere attrition
Wearing down of the protective caps on chromosomes.
- Genomic instability
Damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA by free radicals, radiation, and mutagens.
- Epigenetic alterations
Modifications in gene expression, turning on pro-aging genes and shutting down youthful ones, leading to system-wide loss of function.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction
Mitochondrial decline, resulting in reduced efficiency in energy production and increased oxidative stress.
- Stem cell exhaustion
Depletion of stem cell reserves, leading to a weaker immune system, and inadequate tissue repair.
- Altered intercellular communication
Deregulation of the communication channels between cells.
- Cellular senescence
Accumulation of senescent (non-dividing) cells in the body, impairing tissue function and increasing inflammation.
- Loss of proteostasis
Deregulation of the mechanisms responsible for protein folding and recycling.
- Deregulated nutrient sensing
Deterioration of the cell’s nutrient level response, leading to impairments in energy production, cell growth, and other essential functions.
Our Founder, Greg Macpherson has written a book about Harnessing The Nine Hallmarks of Aging. The book provides actionable takeaways to implement now and increase your likelihood of achieving a long healthspan. The hallmarks were originally characterised in a paper that was published in the leading Biology Journal 'Cell'.